SLS Group

       Same Language Subtitling (SLS) and its impact on reading literacy (July 2023)

           A summary of evidence - Authored by Dr. Brij Kothari, Co-Lead, Billion Readers (BIRD) initiative.

      Journal of Eye Movement Research (Nov 2022)

           Do weak readers in rural India automatically read same language subtitles on Bollywood films? An eye gaze analysis

       Eye Tracking Research Study (June 2018)

           Eye tracking study of AniBooks with Same Language Subtitling (SLS), Rajasthan, India.

      AniBooks for Early Grade Reading, Final Report (June 2018)

           AniBooks with Same Language Subtitling (SLS) for Early Grade Reading, Delhi, India.

     Research Article (2015) SLS Impact in Maharashtra

           Same Language Subtitling on Tv: Putting Children's Reading Literacy on a Path to Lifelong Practice and Improvement.

     Research Article (2014)

          Same Language Subtitling of Bollywood Film. Songs on TV: Effects on Literacy.

     Research Article (2011)

          Can India's "literate" read

     Overview Article (2008) Some Key Findings

          Same Language Subtitling(SLS) Project: Some Key Findings

     SLS: Research Summary (2007) Some Key Findings

          Let a Billion Reader Bloom:Same Language Subtitling(SLS) on Telivision for Mass Literacy

     Research Article (2002)

          Reading Out of the "Idiot Box": Same-Language Subtitling on Television in India

     SLS on Television in India

          Same-Language Subtitling: a butterfly for literacy?

      Subtitling Randomised Control Trial

          Understanding the negative impact of subtitles on UX

Independent Scholars

Payal Arora (2012): The folksong jukebox: singing along for social change in rural India, Asian Journal of Communication

       Payal Arora (2012): The folksong jukebox: singing along for social change in rural India, Asian Journal of Communication

 What Works ClearinghouseTM(2013). WWC Review of the Report "Same-Language-Subtitling (SLS): Using Subtitled Music Video for Reading Growth"

       WWC Single Study Review - U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

    About WWC

About the report

Arora, Payal (2006). E-Karaoke Learning for Gender Empowerment in Rural India

       Information and Communication Technologies and Development, 2006. ICTD apos;06.

International Conference on pp:155 - 164.


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Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society. Vol. 4; Issue.3, pp 121-130.

  This account demonstrates the key challenges faced in producing engaging educational content for information and communication technologies (ICT) deployed in rural India. The Stills in Sync (SIS) project aims to enhance literacy through the revival and proliferation of popular regional folksongs with social awareness themes in rural India. This product entails the use of the Same Language Subtitling (SLS) karaoke feature that won the Worldbank Development Marketplace award in 2002 and the Tech Laureate honor from the Technology Museum of Innovation in 2003. This case study highlights the struggles faced in the production process as we sought to negotiate localism with scalability. The paper is meant to stimulate discussion and further research on the process of digitalizing cultural and educational content in multiple languages for literacy gains and empowerment. I attempt to give three-dimensionality to current buzzwords in education content creation using ICT: localism, relevance and engagement.

  Arora, Payal (2005). Profiting from empowerment

  International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT). Vol. 1; Issue. 4, pp. 18-29.

  Copyright Notice

  Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.

  Deborah L. Linebarger, University of Pennsylvania, Anjelika Z. Kosanic, Charles R. Greenwood and Nii Sai Doku, University of Kansas (2004)

       Effects of Viewing the Television Program Between the Lions on the Emergent Literacy Skills of Young Children

       Does viewing Between the Lions(BTL), an educational television series featuring literacy instruction, improve the emergent literacy skills of kindergarten and first-grade children?

     Given that television is a universally available, free technology with enormous potential to reach all children, having children view a program like BTL will help a significant portion of students by reinforcing, motivating, and extending early literacy instruction,  both in the classroom and within the child’s home.

  Early Literacy Connection to Incarceration

     Illiteracy and crime are connected. The Department of Justice states, “The link between academic failure and delinquency, violence, and crime is welded to reading failure. Over 70% of inmates in America’sprisons cannot read above a fourth grade level.

  NESTA subtitling research Do Subtitles Compromise the Entertainment Value of Children’s TV? (February 2021)

        We are told the results of our two experiments in this area have already persuaded the BBC, Sky, and Amazon Prime to drop their concerns and accelerate adoption of subtitles by default on kids’ content.